Worldwide regulations mandating that automakers improve fuel efficiency and meet new emissions standards prompted Freescale’s development of the MC33816 programmable solenoid controller. Designed for gasoline and diesel direct fuel-injection engines, its functional integration offers the flexibility necessary for integration into virtually any engine system (including flex-fuel and LNG engines, regardless of the number of cylinders). The device embeds intelligence with four integrated µCores so that four parallel tasks can run independently of the main system microcontroller. Response time thus becomes 16 times faster than traditional architectures, according to the company, leading to improved engine efficiency with precision fuel delivery to minimize unnecessary fuel use. Other features include a 9- to 32-V continuous supply (5.5 to 58 V transient); up to 72-V pre-driver operating range; precision peak-and-hold drive; integrated dc-dc boost converter control circuitry; and choice of four programmable slew rates (12.5 to 300 V/µs). Embedded encryption and microcode protection inhibits reverse engineering and safeguards system IP and software. Packaging is a 64-pin, 10- by 10-mm LQFP-EP.