Electronic Design

Verification via VNAs: Measuring PAM4 S-Parameters (.PDF Download)

As high-speed serial data rates advance beyond 50 Gb/s, conventional logic-emulating non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signaling is being replaced by PAM4, a four-level pulse amplitude-modulation scheme. PAM4 takes half the bandwidth to transmit the same payload as the equivalent NRZ signal...

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