By using a combination of power-conserving tricks, a dual voltage-output DAC draws less than 20 æA from a 5-V supply (see the figure). The circuit suits a need for programmable voltage generation in slow or static applications, such as the nulling of offsets in a micropower instrument.
Current-output DACs typically waste power by routing the complement of Iout to ground. In this setup, that waste is avoided by operating each DAC in the reverse voltage-switching mode. The reference voltage is applied to the pins normally labeled Iout.
The Iout pins possess a constant and relatively low input impedance of 11 kΩ. To reduce input currents, the reference voltage is scaled by 100 (from 5 V to 50 mV), and therefore delivers only 5 µA to each DAC input. Signal levels are restored by a compensating gain of 100 in each output amplifier. Inexpensive 10 M/100 k resistor networks are a good choice for the multiple 100:1 attenuators required. Though only 2% accurate, they offer much better capabilities in matching and tracking.
Greater scaling is impractical because of 0.5 mV (maximum) offsets in the output amplifier shown in the figure. Amplified by 100, these offsets produce worst-case output errors of ±1% (0.05 V). The errors are constant over temperature, but additional error due to drift over a range of 40°C is typically ±1/2 LSB. These micropower op amps are chosen for low supply current—their typical IDD is only 1 µA.
The last requirement for minimizing the overall current drain is to ensure that logic signals applied to the digital inputs of IC1 swing to within 0.2 V of each rail. The maximum specified IDD for that condition is 100 µA over temperature, but this specification (like most CMOS IDD ratings) is extremely conservative. IDD is negligible for rail-to-rail swings, but rises dramatically as the swings approach TTL levels.