Simply put, the typical IoT device performs three basic functions: sleep, sense, and connect. In many cases, the IoT device must do these functions wirelessly while powered by a battery, allowing it to be placed virtually anywhere in a household or business—or even on roaming livestock. Several standard wireless protocols, such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and Thread, are available for connectivity, each with its own performance tradeoffs, and many manufacturers choose
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