Automotive manufacturers are building and increasing electrification in vehicle powertrains in the form of hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (HEVs/EVs). HEV/EV sales are expected to represent between 5 and 20 percent of all cars sold by 2025 .
The foundation for HEV/EV architectures is high voltage. These vehicles are based on high-voltage battery systems, such as +400V for EVs and 48V for HEVs.
The basis for energy-efficiency improvements through high voltage will occur through the advancement of switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) enabled by power electronics.
In addition to energy-efficiency improvements, the incorporation of high voltage makes system wiring less complex and lighter. This in effect lowers the vehicle’s overall weight, in addition to overcoming other disadvantages in a 12V system . High voltage also contributes to an overall vehicle efficiency improvement in terms of miles per gallon (MPG) for fuel-injection vehicles and miles per charge for HEVs and EVs.