A modification of Tadiran Batteries’ hybrid layer capacitor (HLC) technology girds its TLI Series of rechargeable lithium-ion cells against harsh environmental conditions. HLC technology stores the high-current pulses (up to 5 A for an AA cell) required for two-way wireless communications, and is field-proven to deliver 25-plus years of service life. Operating temperature ranges from −40 to 85°C, with storage up to 90°C. Annual self-discharge rate is less than 5%. The TLI cells offer up to five times more life cycles than other Li-ions (5000 full cycles). They feature a glass-to-metal seal, unlike the typical crimped seals that are prone to leakage. Available in AA and AAA diameters, the cells can be recharged with dc power or used with photovoltaic solar systems or other energy-harvesting devices.