Understanding LED Application Theory And Practice (.PDF Download)

April 19, 2013

LEDs are the most efficient way to turn an electric current into illumination. When a current flows through a diode in the forward direction, it consists of surplus electrons moving in one direction in the lattice and “holes” (voids in the lattice) moving in the other. Occasionally, electrons can recombine with holes. When they do, the process releases energy in the form of photons.

This is true of all semiconductor junctions, but LEDs use materials that maximize the effect. The color of the light emitted (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the semiconductor materials that form the diode junction.

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