A careful evaluation of process technology options is imperative to meet the insatiable demand for speed, features, and lower cost in data transmission and telecommunications ICs. High switching speeds, low noise and power consumption, and dense passive devices are critical needs for high-speed ICs used for physical-layer (PHY) applications. These include laser drivers and phase-locked loops (PLLs) for the transmitter and transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) and limiting amplifiers on the receiver side.
Over the last decade, silicon-germanium (SiGe) biCMOS technologies have steadily displaced compound semiconductor (indium phosphide, or InP) offerings for data-communications ICs with bit rates up to 10 Gbits/s. By carefully engineering the strain (and thus the bandgap), enhanced electron mobility leads to higher switching speeds. A key device level figure-of-merit is the cutoff frequency (fT), which is the frequency at which an active device’s gain reduces to unity and is a measure of the device’s switching speed.
A second figure-of-merit often used to benchmark communications IC devices is fMAX, a benchmark for analog applications and the frequency at which the power gain reduces to unity. The fT/fMAX of SiGe NPN typically ranges from 30 GHz for high-breakdownvoltage devices to 300 GHz for low-breakdown-voltage devices. The speed-breakdown tradeoff is frequently exploited in modular SiGe biCMOS foundry offerings by modulating the local collector doping, allowing higher functional integration (Fig. 1).
A rule of thumb is to multiply the bit rate by 4 to estimate the minimum fT/fMAX needed. An fT/fMAX of 40 GHz is generally sufficient for 10 Gbits/s, while an fT approaching 160 GHz is needed for 40-Gbit/s applications. Though InP devices have superior speed and noise characteristics, SiGe biCMOS offerings can leverage economies of scale of silicon fabs, while providing significantly higher levels of integration needed for feature-rich ICs.
Integration is especially important when large capacitors or resistors are needed (e.g., for TIAs), or when there’s significant digital content in the IC. SiGe biCMOS will continue to compete with compound semiconductor technologies for 40-Gbit/s telecommunication and 100-Gbit/s data-communication applications, while compound semiconductorbased offerings are likely to be the technology of choice for 160-Gbit/s telecommunication IC needs.
A recent trend is the emergence of 65-nm RF CMOS for 10- to 40-Gbit/s communication ICs. With FET fT/fMAX approaching 200 GHz and low noise figures, and the capability to add dense digital content for system-on-a-chip (SoC) needs, these scaled silicon platforms on 300-mm wafers are an attractive option. The RF CMOS option may be a more viable option on the receiver-side ICs, since the lower supply voltage limits usage in high-power laser driver circuits.
In the near term, however, die-cost optimization and the desirability to use best-of-breed technologies will continue to drive optical communication subsystems to different process technologies. Systemsin- a-package (SIPs) will remain an attractive option for IC vendors looking to offer integrated solutions to equipment manufacturers. SiGe biCMOS, with its low noise and higher voltage-handling capabilities, though, remains an attractive option for complete integration of the receive and transmit functions on a single chip. Figure 2 shows the typical usage of various process technologies for lightwave communication ICs.
An often overlooked consideration while evaluating process technology platforms for high-speed communication needs relates to design automation. With a goal of reducing time-to-market and prototyping costs, best-in-class design automation tools are imperative. Design-enablement tools, including silicon-verified device models and flexible design environments, allow customers to test, modify, and improve the functionality and yield of new products on the computer long before the first prototype is manufactured.