The increased sensitivity of ICs to ESD is a given for today’s electronics manufacturers. Shrinking product size is a major reason companies are forced to devise new static-control and test methods.For example, in the last five years, the magnetoresistive (MR) head used in the disk drive industry has had a profound effect on ESD control. It has forced MR head manufacturers to fine-tune static-control practices to maintain personnel at <10 MW resistance and find more accurate and sensitive ESD measurement equipment to test work areas for compliance. The flat-panel display industry, medical device manufacturing performed in clean rooms, and automated manufacturing processes are following suit.
The instruments needed to test the veracity of ESD-control programs also must keep up with the sensitivity levels of devices, sometimes as low as 10 V. As a result, equipment such as an electrostatic voltmeter is being used more because it can measure as low as 1 V on small surfaces. These meters also can help verify the effectiveness of ionization products to 10 V.
To improve yields and increase throughput, some manufacturers are automating their production line. This removes people from the process, but introduces a new set of ESD-control challenges. These companies now must focus on the location of the static buildup and determine a solution.
EE’s 12th annual ESD Product Showcase helps you jump start your search for the newest ESD-control product, whether it is flooring, test equipment, training programs, apparel, cabinets, ionizers, packaging material, workstations, or mats. The ever-popular showcase is a valuable reference tool whenever you need to specify or buy ESD-control products, test equipment, or services. We suggest that you save it and refer to it for all your ESD-related requirements.
Applied Ion Technologies
Bevco Ergonomic Seating
BioFit Engineered Products
California Micro Devices
DSM Engineering Plastic Products
Gary Plastic Packaging
Interactive Media Communications
Kent H. Landsberg
LNP Engineering Plastics
Mitech, Subsidiary of BFGoodrich Specialty Products
NoiseKen/Watahan Nohara International
Static Control Components
3M Electronic Handling and Protection
United Ad Label
The Electrotile line of vinyl tile now offers four new colors: blue, gray, taupe, and green. The line is available in a static-dissipative and a conductive version. Tile sizes are 12″ × 12″ or 36″ × 36″ × 1/8″ thick. The static-dissipative tile has a resistance of >106 W and <109 W . The conductive-version resistance ranges from 25 kW to <106 W . AB ElectroStatic, (905) 507-2400.
Carbon and Nylon Coat
The M81CSN2 coat is made of 65% polyester, 34% cotton, and 1% carbon suffused nylon. The coat has raglan sleeves and large pockets. It is available with or without cuffs. Abigail Uniform, (800) 328-9926.
Staticide Diamond Polyurethane, Water-Based Paint dissipates static charge on concrete and other unfinished hard floor surfaces. The surface resistivity is 105 to 107 W /sq. The coating does not require a specific level of humidity to provide static control. It also resists alcohol, oils, gasoline, flux, and most common electronics chemicals. The standard colors are beige and gray. ACL, (847) 981-9212.
The Static Meter 300 has chopper-stabilized circuitry and measures to ±30 kV. The function switch can be set on a 1× or 10× setting and the meter scale calibrated for measurements at 1″ or 4″. It has an output for a recorder and a 40-h battery life for unattended monitoring. Applied Ion Technologies, (760) 320-9001
Moisture Barrier Bag
The StratoGuard 9855 Moisture Barrier Bag is 7-mm thick, has a puncture resistance of 30 pounds, and offers ESD protection. The film has 1.5-mm thick polyester barrier layer and a 5.5-mm thick polyethylene layer. The inner and outer surfaces have a static-dissipative coating. The bags are used for vacuum packaging applications and are fashioned to conform to the shape of the object. The bags exceed the requirements of EIA 541 and MIL-B 81705C. BayStat, (650) 364-3205.
The 7000E Series Seating features a self-skinned ESD polyurethane seat and backrest that resists stains, punctures, and damage from water, grease, and chemicals. Surface resistance is 108 W . Twelve models in the series cover seat heights from 16″ to 35″. All models come with pneumatic seat-height adjustment, a 360° swivel, an adjustable backrest, stationary ESD glides or heavy-duty ESD casters, and a five-leg tubular steel base with a welded or an adjustable footring. Bevco Ergonomic Seating, (800) 864-2991.
Protective AlloyStat-Rite™ M-690 is a polyethylene glycol alloy that provides ESD protection for hard-disk device component packaging, including head gimbal assemblies, head stack assemblies, suspensions, and wires. Outgassing properties are <1 ppm with low levels of particulate and ionic contaminants. It is available in pellet or sheet form. Mitech, Subsidiary of BFGoodrich Specialty Products, (800) 425-1634.
The Agility™ Industrial Work Benches are available in four styles: a fixed-height surface and electric-, hydraulic-, or mechanical-height adjustment. The worksurfaces measure 30″ × 60″ or 30″ × 72″ and are made of a static-dissipative material. The accessories include articulating arms, VDT and keyboard holders, a tool holder, overhead lighting, a work organizer, and a power bar. BioFit Engineered Products, (800) 597-0246.
A line of ESD-control footwear provides a resistance of 107 W and a dissipative outsole. Shoe materials include leather or polyurethane available in fully enclosed, back-strap, sandal, or clog styles. Birkenstock, (800) 487-2475.
The BCTTS Station tests wrist straps, heel straps, or footwear. It has a 15″ × 18″ aluminum floor plate secured to a 36″ high steel test frame. The frame uses a 100% nonconductive powder coat paint. The station uses the company’s #BCT9 wrist-strap tester, or it can be equipped with a user’s tester. Botron, (978) 725-6700.
Two sizes of ESD-safe trash receptacles are available for electronic workstations and production areas. The containers have an impregnated conductive shielding layer and a permanently static-dissipative surface with a surface resistivity ranging from 107 to 1010 W /sq. The receptacles have a steel perimeter frame and conductive handles. Static-dissipative liners are offered. Brick Container, (714) 994-4140.
ESD Protection Network
The PAC DN006™ is an integrated ESD protection network device designed for portable applications with up to six inputs. It offers protection up to 15 kV per the Human Body Model in Method 3015 of MIL-STD-883. The device also meets the requirements IEC 1000-4-2 for ESD immunity to 8 kV for contact discharge and 15 kV for air discharge. The DN006 package measures 116 × 116 mils × 40 mils. California Micro Devices, (800) 325-4966.
The VSE 3000 Ionizer is a self-balancing unit that maintains ±5 V ion balance. It delivers an air volume from 80 cfm to 160 cfm and an air velocity of 550 ft/min at a distance of 2 ft. A wide-angle air diffuser and an adjustable mounting stand are available. Chapman, (207) 773-4726.
Wafer Transport Plastic
Semitron™ ESD 225 is a general-purpose ESD-control material with a surface resistivity of 1010 to 1012 W /sq and a heat resistance of 225°F at 264 psi. Wafer combs made of the material eliminate equipment discharges during boat-to-boat transfer of wafers. The material is made with a permanently conductive chemical additive. DSM Engineering Plastic Products, (800) 366-0300.
Ionization Transport System
The Model HM-8000 suspends over a workstation and blows ionized air over a 36″ × 48″ area. It offers three-speed airflow control. The unit is inherently balanced and has a fail-safe balance indicator. It conforms to EOS/ESD Standard S3.1-1991. ElectroStatics, (215) 513-0850.
Static Measurement System
The Model 215A Electrostatic Measurement System contains the company’s 212 Static Meter, the 208A Dual Voltage Charging Source, a 6″ × 6″ detector plate, a tripod, and a ground bus. The system helps balance ionizers and check static propensity, E-field attenuation, and personnel voltage. It also can be used for calibration measurements. Electro-Tech Systems, (215) 887-2196.
Heel and Toe Grounder
The Sole Grounder combines the features of heel and toe grounders and is available in three sizes to fit most users. It has a wide contact area on the foot and features a D-ring fastener, cross-linked tire-grade rubber, an eight-strand grounding tab, and either a 1-MW or a 2-MW molded exterior resistor. ESD Systems, (508) 485-7390.
The Super Ion Air Knife removes static electricity from plastics and other products where dust and ESD are problems. It produces a laminar airflow sheet that floods an area with static-eliminating ions. The unit is nonradioactive and shockless and has no moving parts. The ionizer requires 4 scfm of compressed air per foot of length at 5 psig. The sound level is 50 dBa. Exair, (513) 671-3322.
A line of ESD ring lights provides a conductive and grounded connection through the light source. The ring-light body and coupling parts have an irridited finish to make them conductive. Stainless steel conducts the charge from the body of the ring light to the light-source adapter. Fostec (315) 255-2791.
Chemi-Top™ 950 Heavy-Duty Epoxy Resurfacer resists abrasion and wear, and the Chemi-Cote™ LDR ESD 610 is an epoxy coating for self-leveling, slurry coating applications. These floor systems do not generate more than 50 V of body voltage. Body-voltage decays from 5 kV to 0 V in <0.1 s. Both systems perform independently of relative humidity. The Chemi-Cote 100%-solids system provides chemical resistance against aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and dilute acids and alkalis. Garland Floor, (800) 321-2395.
Static-Dissipative MaterialLemcen A.F.S.D. is a transparent, amine-free, permanently static-dissipative material which can be reused after washing. It is nonhumidity-dependent and appropriate for use in clean rooms. It does not slough or outgas. The noncorrosive material has a surface resistivity of <1011W /sq and a static decay rate of <2 s. Gary Plastic Packaging, (714) 556-4121.
HMS-1000C is a rigid, bulk-conductive thermoforming styrenic material used for semiconductor and disk-drive packaging. The material provides 5 ft-lbf/in. notched izod impact strength. It is recyclable and offered in custom widths and gauges. Typical electrical properties include a surface resistivity of 500 kW /sq at a distance of 0.060″ and a decay time from 5 kV to 0 in <0.01 s. HMS Compounds, (817) 468-3099.
Model 16000 for men and Model 18000 for women are black leather soft-toe oxford shoes with static-dissipative capabilities. They have slip-resistant outsoles, cushioned polyurethane midsoles, and removable cushioned insoles. The shoes exceed ANSI standards offering a volume resistance range from 1 MW to 10 MW . Men’s sizes range from 6 to 15. Women’s shoes are available sizes from 5 to 11. Hy-Test, (800) 635-4536.
The ESD-Control Training Program meets the EOS/ESD Association standards for ESD control. It covers most manufacturing and service environments including clean rooms and high-voltage hazardous areas. It is available in MPEG and AVI versions and offered on videotape and videodisk. Interactive Media Communications, (781) 890-7707.
The Z-Stat® Model 6412A-1F Single-Fan Precision SC Ionizing Blower is Class 100 clean-room compatible. It features high-gain feedback for maintaining ion balance to ±5 V, a status output for connecting to facility monitoring systems, a maintenance indicator that warns you when cleaning is required, and an input connection from a sensor to automatically adjust the ion output. Ion Systems, (800) 367-2452.
The IPC-CD-19 ESD-control training program on CD-ROM helps train operators, technicians, and production personnel. Basic and advanced levels focus on how to prevent static charges, neutralize charges, and protect devices from static fields. A resource section includes a 175-page handbook from the ESD Association, articles, book excerpts, lists of organizations, and a glossary. The advanced training is for personnel with technical backgrounds while the basic type provides similar information in simple terms. IPC, (847) 509-9700.
Corru-Shield™ is a corrugated paperboard that combines a blue dissipative outer liner with a carbon-impregnated conductive medium. The liner provides a resistivity from 106 to 109 W /sq, and the carbon material has a resistivity ranging from 103 to 104 W /sq. Corru-Shield is used as an open bin box, an in-plant handler, or as a shelf liner. Kent H. Landsberg, (714) 562-6118.
Key kote is a static-dissipative polyurethane flooring and coating with a surface resistivity of 105 to 10 7 W /sq at 100 V and a volatile organic compound content of 2.9 lb/gal. The flooring resists most chemicals and is available in a variety of colors. It can be applied with a roller, brush, or spray gun. Key Industries, (800) 543-9462.
The Height-Right™ Adjustable Workbench has a height adjustment of 15″. It is available with worksurfaces to ensure static dissipation at safe rates. The workbench has a 1,200-lb static-load capacity and a 600-lb dynamic capacity. The center panel of the bench is removable and comes in a variety of colors. Lista International, (800) 722-3020.
Stat-Kon® DS-L, a stainless steel reinforced PTFE polycarbonate composite, is used for products that need to be particulate free. A lubricant component of the material prevents parts from sticking to high-speed robotic equipment. The static-conductive composite prevents charge buildup that attracts dust or debris. LNP Engineering Plastics, (610) 363-4500.
ESD Event Detector
When connected to an antenna, the Model T-100 ESD Event Detector finds RF signals generated by electrostatic discharge and displays the number of occurrences. A loop or monopole antenna with a BNC connector can be used with the unit. ESD events are detected within a radius that depends on the voltage of the ESD event and the low threshold setting on the detector. It has an LED and audible alarm. Applications include clean-room manufacturing, component packaging, electronic repair, product assembly, and education. Lucent Technologies, (609) 639-2423.
Silver Conductive Adhesive
EP21TDCSFL is a silver-filled, electrically conductive epoxy adhesive that cures at room temperature or more rapidly at elevated temperatures. It uses a 1:1 mix by weight or volume, is 100% reactive and not diluted, and does not contain solvents. The volume resistivity of the cured adhesive ranges from 103 to 104 W •cm. It adheres to metals, glass, ceramics, vulcanized rubber, and many plastics. It can be applied on vertical surfaces. Master Bond, (201) 343-8983.
The Model 268A-T Charged-Plate Analyzer evaluates room ionization, air guns, laminar flow hoods, and tabletop ionizers per ESD Standard 3.1. It checks static-decay timing and balance monitoring. The isolated charged plate is removable for positioning. The analyzer features user-selectable timing at either 5,000-V or 1,000-V levels. Monroe Electronics, (800) 821-6001.
The ESS-200AX Electrostatic Discharge Simulator generates discharges up to 30 kV and offers four operation modes including severity level, manual, sweep and program routine. The simulator includes a discharge gun and a temperature/humidity sensor with a cable. The charging resistance of the simulator combined with the discharge gun is 53 MW . The unit can be controlled by a computer. NoiseKen/Watahan Nohara International, (800) 366-3515.
Workstation Detection System
The Series 5300 System provides workstation monitoring for real-time control of electrostatic charge. It offers ionization-balance monitoring, field-charge monitoring, human-body voltage detection, and workstation ground monitoring. The unit features a direct interface to the company’s data acquisition software system, facility monitoring systems, and smart, closed-loop ionization systems. Novx, (800) 748-6689.
The PRS-801 Resistance System measures floors, worksurfaces, packaging, clothing, equipment, production aids, and other static-controlled materials. It displays resistance measurements in W , kW , MW , GW , and TW as well as in exponential format. The PRS-801 records and stores up to 64 measurements and calculates minimum, maximum, and average of all stored data. Data may be downloaded to standard computer systems via an RS-232 output port for presentation in Excel spreadsheets. Prostat, (630) 238-8883.
The Knit-Stat Glove is constructed from continuous stretch nylon and carbon filament to provide a pathway for continuous discharge of static charge. The knit construction allows ease of movement and absorbs moisture. It features seamless construction and the company’s MicroKnit for dexterity at the finger tip. The gloves maintain ESD qualities after washing and are ambidextrous. QRP, (800) 832-3882.
The PermaStat® line of thermoplastics has surface resistivity from 1010 to 1011 W /sq. It is colorable, humidity independent, nonsloughing, and formulated to meet MIL-B-81705C static-decay requirements. Uses include electronics, medical, consumer, aerospace, and automotive markets where dust-free environments are necessary. RTP, (800) 433-4787.
PC-300™ Polycarbonate is a plastic sheet material with a proprietary clear surface that controls static electricity. The product controls ESD and particulate attraction independent of humidity levels. It resists tribocharging and does not generate a charge when grounded. Applications include semiconductor and electronics manufacturing. SC Technologies, (800) 525-8183.
Aluminum Bubble Material
Cushionshield® Aluminum Bubble Cushioning Material provides static-sensitive products with a static-safe environment and eliminates damage from physical shock during handling. It does not degrade electrically after multiple uses. A thin, coextruded, nylon barrier retains air for consistent cushioning properties. Bags made of Cushionshield are available in sizes from 4″ × 5″ to 18″ × 22″ and have a 2″ fold-over lip. Sealed Air, (800) 648-9093.
The Constant Wrist Strap Monitor provides real-time status reporting of wrist-strap ground systems and workstation grounding. It comes with a communications port for interfacing with the company’s TR2000 data acquisition system. The unit can be supplied with a 10-MW or a 35-MW upper limit loop resistance. Semtronics, (770) 487-6700.
Ionizing Air Gun
The Top Gun™ Ionizing Air Gun offers cleaning and static-charge decay for electronics and clean-room applications. It operates using the principle of electrical corona discharge. A filter at the exit of the gun ensures clean air. The gun is balanced to 0 ±15 V and features a high blow-off force. A two-level LED indicates power and ionization. The flow-control valve and a balance adjustment are built into the gun. It works with compressed air or nitrogen and has a hanger for mounting. Simco, (800) 538-0750.
SPEC-STAT® is a permanently clear or colored coating/paint that can be applied to any surface to dissipate static electricity by decreasing surface and volume resistance. The conductive coating is formulated in any acrylic, vinyl, polyurethane, epoxy, or polyester system. Applications include ESD packaging, coated ESD-control bags, ESD-safe workstations, and ESD-control packaging. Specialty Coatings, (800) 782-2400.
Heel and Toe Grounders
Heel and toe grounders constructed from rubber and elastic Velcro provide a secure and comfortable fit for people on the move. The grounders have nonmarking inner surfaces and 1-MW resistors for safety. Several styles are available, including the cup-type heel grounder and the toe grounder designed for use with high-heeled shoes and boots. Heel grounders on each shoe safely drain static charge to ground while you
walk on a static floor mat or ESD-control floor. Static Control Components, (800) 356-2728.
The Ohm-Shield RT-1000 Megohmmeter has a digital, alphanumeric LCD for measuring temperature, relative humidity, resistance to ground, point-to-point resistance, and surface or volume resistivity. The CE-approved meter conforms to U.S., UL, NFPA, EIA, ASTM, ESD, ANSI, military, and European CECC test methods. Applications include testing bags, coatings, clean-room flooring, heel grounders, smocks, booties, floor finishes, gloves, finger cots, clean-room enclosures, and wrist straps. The unit tests at 10 V and 100 V and measures from 103 W to 1012 W, humidity between 10% and 100%, and temperatures from 32°F to 212°F. Static Solutions, (888) 480-0700.
Large Cup Grounder
The Comfort Grounder foot grounder has a large rubber cup that fits under the ball of the foot to provide greater contact with the floor. It has an elastic strap that connects at the instep and an antislip pad that fits over the back of the heel to keep the strap securely in place. The grounder is available in two sizes suitable for men and women. It has a 1-MW or 2-MW resistor. Static Technologies, (617) 357-6444.
Field Service Kit
The Field Service Kit is designed to remove static charges from the workplace as well as in the field. The three-layer vinyl measures 26″ × 24″ and has two 12″ × 8″ pockets. A ground strap and an adjustable wrist strap are included in the package. Techni-Tool, (610) 941-2400.
Interlocking Conductive Mat
The No. 787 Electrically Conductive Interlock is a rubber runner with a surface-to-surface resistance of 104 W and a surface-to-ground resistance of 104 W . Sections connect to form runners of any size. It provides a comfortable work area that can reduce fatigue for personnel. The surface is easily cleaned and provides traction for foot traffic. The runners also are available in workstation sizes. Tennessee Mat/Wearwell, (800) 264-3030.
ESD-Control IC Software
ESDChip is a customer-definable test-structure set for devising an on-chip ESD protection strategy. The set is comprised of devices used for protection of CMOS ICs and supports elements for characterizing the devices. Each chip is customized to specific foundry processes, design rule sets, and device dimensions. The package allows you to look at ESD performance of CMOS technology. TestChip Technologies, (214) 348-5875.
The Model 7308 CD-ROM ESD Training Program has sections on basic static-electricity concepts, damage of static-sensitive devices, and static-control measures. The multimedia software teaches static-electricity awareness and helps educate and verify employee competence in static control. Model 7309 is the Spanish version with a neutral translation suitable for use in most Spanish-speaking countries. Model 7308-10M has a network version that can be accessed by up to 10 people at one time. The student portion of the network version is presented in English and Spanish. Each section of the self-paced program concludes with a quiz. 3M Electronic Handling and Protection, (800) 665-7862, ext. 74.
The Model 369 Electrostatic Voltmeter makes noncontact surface voltage measurements from 0 to ±3 kV DC or peak AC. An electrostatic field-nulling technique achieves DC stability and measurement accuracy even if the probe-to-measured-surface spacing changes. This permits measurements of stationary and moving surfaces. An automatic gain control eliminates manual adjustment when changing probes. It features one-step push-button zeroing when the probe is coupled to a known zero-volt surface. Trek, (800) FOR-TREK (367-8735).
A selection of ESD-sensitive labels, protective labels, and workstation signs is available from the company. The ESD-sensitive labels can be applied to ICs, boards, and other assemblies to indicate static sensitivity. The ESD-protective labels and signs identify areas within production that offer protection from ESD. United Ad Label, (800) 423-4643.
Static-Dissipative TileStatmate™ is a 1/8″-thick, static-dissipative vinyl tile that contains conductive elements distributed throughout to provide tile-to-tile conductivity. It has a floor-to-ground resistance ranging from 106W to 108W . Static generation is <300 V at 20% RH when tested with personnel conductive footwear. It resists abrasion cracking, chipping, and permanent indentations from loads up to 250 psi. Applications include electronics manufacturing, assembly and test areas, clean rooms, and raised or access flooring. VPI, (800) 874-4240.
Resistance Test Kit
The WSRTG340 Resistance Test Kit meets the equipment requirements of ANSI/ESD 4.1 for worksurfaces and ANSI/ESD 7.1 for flooring. The kit includes a megohmmeter, two 5-lb electrodes, and test leads packed in a carrying case. Point-to-point and point-to-ground measurements are made at 10 V and 100 V. A test voltage of 10 V is automatically applied to materials <106 W and 100 V to products from 106 to 1012 W. Manual setting of the voltage is allowed. An analog scale autoranges from 103 to 1013 W . Three LEDs indicate conductive, dissipative, or insulative conditions. Wescorp, (800) 537-7828.
DECADE SC Static Control Carpeting is a heavy-duty, solution-dyed, loop-pile carpet for production and data-processing areas. It provides continuous static protection with a path to ground. It only requires vacuuming and shampooing and offers sound absorption and antifatigue properties with a 10-year warranty covering wear, electrical conductivity failure, and stain resistance. Westek Electrostatics, (800) 446-2888.
Polystat Knit ESD-Control fabric is 94% polyester and 6% nylon carbon. The material weight is 3.2 oz/sq yd, providing comfort and appropriate surface resistivity performance for work on static-sensitive devices. Westex, (773) 523-7000.
Four versions of static-dissipative labels developed for the electronics industry generate <25-V static charge. B129 is a white paper for packaging and awareness labeling with a surface resistivity of 2 × 109 W /sq. B445 white vinyl has a surface resistivity of 8 × 107 W /sq and is used for component tube-and-reel labeling. B473 white polyester has a surface resistivity of 5 × 108 W /sq with applications in PCB and component labeling. The B477 white polyimide also is used for PCB and component labeling and has a surface resistivity of 1 × 108 W/sq. Brady USA, (414) 358-6600.
The ESD Protective Adjustable Aluminum Carrier for PCBs provides a Faraday shield and mechanical protection for boards. The carrier has 10 or 20 injection-molded, conductive, polypropylene guides for handling PCBs spaced at 9/16″ or 1-1/8″ apart. It resists solvents and tolerates temperatures to 200°F. Cymat Technologies, (905) 602-1100.
SMT Reel Feeder Rack
The Legend SMT Component Reel Cart has conductive zinc-plated steel storage platforms and dividers and a grounding chain. ESD-control casters are available. Reel storage and staging platforms adjust horizontally and vertically within its open-sided frame. It accommodates most feeder reel sizes. All shelving components attach to the vertical support groove on the workstation. IAC Industries, (714) 990-8997.
Static-Free LabelsThe StaticSafe™ Series of labels is offered in polyester and polyimide material versions. The labels are used on electronic parts including PCBs and ICs. They are applied manually or with an automatic applicator and printer and reduce static charges of 10,000 V to <100 V. Imtec, (802) 463-9502.
The Dacobas Electronic Workstation is equipped with ESD protection. The workstation has modern styling combined with ergonomic design that integrates easily for office and technical applications. Knurr USA, (805) 526-7733.
Static-control flooring combines conductive or dissipative vinyl tile with a conductive adhesive. The conductive version meets the requirements of NFPA 99 with an average resistance of 2.5 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 W . The static-dissipative tile has an average resistance from 1.0 × 106 to 1.0 × 108 W . The vinyl tile resists wear, abrasion, and the effects of solder and chemicals. Marley Flexco, (800) 633-3151.
Copyright 1998 Nelson Publishing Inc.