The goal of a sensor is to gather data about a real-world parameter and convert it to electrical form. Needless to say, the techniques for doing that take many forms, but the standard method to determine distance measures the time taken for a transmitted signal to travel to a target object and be reflected back to an adjacent receiver. The signal can be acoustic, as in a sonar or ultrasonic system, or electromagnetic (EM) waves, i.e., radar (radio direction and ranging) and LiDAR (light
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