**This article is part of the Ideas for Design Series: Vol. 3, No. 9.**

A recent Idea for Design showed a graphical technique for determining the output of an RC filter driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) pulse train.^{1} It requires the manipulation of infinite series with a limit. Therefore, it does not yield steady-state results with confidence.

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A better approach uses the concept of continuity of states and steady-state “wrap-around” to eliminate this shortcoming, since current and voltage values in a real circuit cannot change instantaneously. Current and voltage are variables with continuous values in time, from moment to moment. For a circuit structure that is switched periodically among several states repeatedly, the end state of one structure serves as the starting state of the next.

Using the same RC filter, periodic-input pulse train, and designations as the referenced Idea for Design, Equation 1 shows the filter output when the driving source V_{A} is non-zero:

_{0a}and V

_{0b}are yet to be determined. A gating function with unit steps is also used. At steady state and at the switching boundaries, t = DT and t = T, so Equations 3a and 3b must hold:

_{0b}, of the inactive duration with zero drive. Similarly, the end state of the inactive interval must return to the same starting state, V

_{0a}, of the active segment. Using these facts and Equations 3a and 3b, we get:

_{A}, duty cycle D, pulse period T, and time constant RC = τ. The steady state output in one cycle can be written as:

_{A}= 1, D = 0.6, T = 20 μs, and τ = 50T, produces the steady-state results of the figure. The output dc level

*(Equation 7)*is obtained by taking the average of Equation 5:

The approach presented here gives the true steady-state output in compact, closed form with a high degree of confidence. The technique can be extended to other second- and higher-order circuits that are switched periodically among multiple states.^{2, 3}

**References**

1. “Graphically Determine The Output Signal Level Of An RC Filter,” *Electronic Design*, Oct. 3, 2013.

2. *Switch-mode Power Converters*, Keng Wu, Elsevier, 2005, ISBN 13:978-0-12-088795.

3. *Power Rectifiers, Inverters, and Converters*, Keng Wu, Lulu.com, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4357-2023-7.

**Keng C. Wu** has a BS from Chiaotung University, Taiwan, and an MS from Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. He has published four books and holds seven U.S. patents. He can be reached at [email protected].