AES, or Advanced Encryption Standard, is an encryption standard expected to be used worldwide, as was the case with its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES is one of the most popular algorithms used in symmetric key cryptography.
BAC, or Basic Access Control is a procedure to prevent skimming and eavesdropping of data, BAC is similar to a PIN used in ATM or credit card transactions. In the case of the electronic passport, characters from the printed machine-readable zone of the passport must be read first in order to unlock the chip for reading.
Biometric Comparison relies on a specific reference, such as a photograph, for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical traits.
DES is a Data Encryption Standard that specifies an approved cryptographic algorithm required by FIPS 140-1, which provides a complete description of a mathematical algorithm for encrypting (enciphering) and decrypting (deciphering) binary coded information.
ECC, Elliptic Curve Cryptography is a form of public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. Elliptic curves are also used in several integer factorization algorithms that have applications in cryptography.
ISO/IEC 1443 is an international standard for smart chips that operate at 13.56 MHz. It is the standard for a contactless RF interface with communication range of 10cm or less. It contains communications protocol, message sets, data dictionary and security protocols and supports data rates between 106 kbits/s and 424 kbits/s.
ISO/IEC 7816 is an international standard related to electronic identification cards or chips, especially those managed jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is an agency of the United Nations that codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.
MIFARE® developed by Philips Austria GmbH, it is a contactless smart chip technology based on ISO 14443 Type A (13.56 MHz). Used with smart chips and readers, MIFARE Pro, ProX, and SmartMX, are Philips brand names for smart chips that comply to ISO 14443-4 (T=CL).
PKI, Public Key Infrastructure, technology prevents the chip from being altered, providing a higher level of security for the passport. Access to the data on the chip requires the use of an official public key to ensure that the data has not been altered and that it was written to the chip.
RSA is public key encryption algorithm invented in 1978 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman of MIT; the first letter of their surnames produce RSA.