A finned housing that increases the surface area of the DIF23 Series of brushless dc motors is also reported to lower the motor's thermal resistance and improve the overall thermal dissipation. Motors come in four standard frame lengths of 1.3", 1.6", 1.9", and 2.2". Typical operating speeds range from 4000 rpm to 20,000 rpm with continuous stall (and peak) torque ratings of 8 oz.-in., 16 oz-in., 22 oz.-in. and 32 oz.-in., respectively. Other torques and operating speeds are also available in modified configurations.