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Hex-Switch Decoder Uses Weighted-Capacitor Network to Reduce I/O Pin Count (.PDF Download)

A pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal and the RC-charging characteristics of a weighted-capacitor network can be used along with a CMOS Schmitt inverter to generate a pulse whose width is linearly proportional to the 16 combinations of a hex (thumbwheel) switch. The decoding is implemented using the Arduino Uno and requires only two pins (OCRA and INT0), leaving all of the other pins free for alternate functions.

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