This MCU-based circuit converts sensor outputs, which are often voltage, into a standard current signal, thus avoiding noise and loss when sending over long lines.
Ascertaining the relationship between bandwidth and response in power supplies isn’t easy, but this Idea for Design presents a measurement approach that helps ease the process.
Rather than use a fixed-rail voltage source, it’s more efficient and flexible to utilize a current source so that performance remains consistent while supply rail and coil resistance change.
Isolated dc-dc converters are prone to excessive in-rush current, but a small soft-start circuit can solve the problem and limit that current.
By using this simple capacitor-network circuit and software, designs using the Arduino Uno need only two I/O pins to read a hex-switch decoder, leaving the remaining pins for other functions.
Limiter circuits are often needed to prevent a wide-range signal from overloading the next stage in the signal chain—this user-adjustable circuit provides bipolar limiting at precise preset value.
A microcontroller's internal ADC was inadequate to measure its own supply rail, so a circuit using standard discrete components was devised to do this with just one pin of the IC.
This simple approach allows all low-frequency attenuator parameters for T pads and pi pads to be computed from just three measurements of dc resistance