Measuring voltage may be the most basic measurement you can make on a cell or battery. Cell or battery voltage is used to determine the state of charge, the resistance, and other key behaviors of the cell. Current is determined by measuring the voltage across a current-sense resistor or current shunt.
Depending on the sensor type, temperature is determined by measuring the voltage across a temperature sensor, and resistance is determined by measuring the voltage response of the cell or battery to a current stimulus. Finally, auxiliary voltage measurement points are measured to determine proper functional operation of the battery system.